Beekeeping implies a great diversity of bee pasture, which changes more and more from year to year and sometimes disappears. This problem very often causes beekeepers to constantly move the colony, which is certainly a stress for bees and a great obligation for beekeepers. As plants don’t’t bloom all at the same time, but continuously from the end of February to the beginning of October, it is very important to choose a good location for the beehives at the beginning.
Summer pasture plants bloom from the end of June until the beginning of September. The most important are sunflower, white and horse basil, buckwheat, goldenrod, clover and various other weeds. Of the cultivated plants, pumpkins, watermelons and cucumbers are very important.
Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) is grown on large areas and is one of the main bee pastures. Sunflower flowers provide bees with significant amounts of nectar and pollen and last a relatively long time, up to 25 days, sometimes if the conditions are favorable – and longer! However, during rainy, windy and cold weather, sunflower produces a resin that has a sticky consistency to which bee legs and wings are often glued. This is one of the main reasons why beekeepers with smaller colonies roam this pasture so as not to lose a large number of bees.
White basil (Stachys annua) is a wild weed that blooms until the second half of August. The white flowers secrete nectar best in calm and warm weather or during the morning dew. This plant is very often plucked due to ignorance of people and falls even more often, although the yields of honey from it are extraordinary! However, it thrives in Vojvodina around canals and roads and it has been shown that bees overwinter very well on it.
Horse basil (Mentha longifolia) is a species that thrives in wet terrain but is often found in meadows, along roadsides and on uncultivated land. It has small, purple flowers that are grouped along the tree and bloom during July and August. In nice and warm weather, bees visit this plant in masse throughout the day and collect significant amounts of nectar.
Buckwheat (Polygonum fagopyrum) has recently become one of the main cereals that replace wheat in the human diet. This annual plant, native to Asia, has clustered inflorescences of pink or green color. In the lower regions it blooms during the second half of July, and in the higher regions only in the second half of August. However, it gives the best yield during hot summer days with occasional rain. The honey of this plant has a very specific taste and a more watery structure than other honeys we are used to. However, this type of honey is in great demand in the west and reaches a high price.
Goldenrod (Solidago virga aurea) is a perennial plant that we usually see next to canals, rivers and swamps. With golden-yellow flowers, clustered in clustered inflorescences, it blooms in the second half of August, until the first week of September. The flowering period of this plant is very important because just then in many parts of our country bee pasture is the poorest.
Clover (Trifolium sp) is an excellent honey plant whose nectar is mostly colorless, aromatic and with a high percentage of sugar. The yield of nectar and pollen of this plant largely depends on environmental conditions because they need high humidity and high temperatures, which is related to the period at the end of July and during the month of August.
Meadow grazing lasts a long time and significant amounts of honey can be obtained from it. If the grazing is good, it will force the queen to lay eggs, and the bees to nurture the brood, which will improve the development of the society for the next season. By cleverly using the auxiliary, quiet grazing during that period of the year, it can lead to an increase in the number of litters in the hive without feeding!